Andrei Sakharov

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Andrei Sakharov
Андрей Сахаров
Sakharov at a conference of the USSR Academy of Sciences on 1 March 1989
Born(1921-05-21)21 May 1921
Died14 December 1989(1989-12-14) (aged 68)
Resting placeVostryakovskoye Cemetery
CitizenshipSoviet Union
Alma mater
Known for
  • Klavdia Vikhireva (1943–1969; her death)
  • Yelena Bonner (1972–1989; his death)
Scientific career
ThesisТеория ядерных переходов типа 0→0 (1947)
Doctoral advisorIgor Tamm
Doctoral studentsErast Gliner

Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (Russian: Андрей Дмитриевич Сахаров, IPA: [ɐnˈdrʲej ˈdmʲitrʲɪjevʲɪtɕ ˈsaxərəf]; 21 May 1921 – 14 December 1989) was a Soviet physicist and a Nobel Peace Prize laureate, which he was awarded in 1975 for emphasizing human rights around the world.

Although he spent his career in physics in the Soviet program of nuclear weapons, overseeing the development of thermonuclear weapons, Sakharov also did fundamental work in understanding particle physics, magnetism, and physical cosmology. Sakharov is mostly known for his political activism for individual freedom, human rights, civil liberties and reforms in Russia, for which he was deemed a dissident and faced persecution from the Soviet establishment.[1]

In his memory, the Sakharov Prize was established and is awarded annually by the European Parliament for people and organizations dedicated to human rights and freedoms.[2]


Family background and early life[edit]

Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov was born in Moscow on 21 May 1921, to a Russian family. His father, Dmitri Ivanovich Sakharov, was a physics professor at the Second Moscow State University and an amateur pianist.[3][4] His grandfather, Ivan, was a lawyer in the former Russian Empire who had displayed respect for social awareness and humanitarian principles (including advocating the abolition of capital punishment). Sakharov's mother, Yekaterina Alekseevna Sofiano, was a daughter of Aleksey Semenovich Sofiano, a general in the Tsarist Russian Army.[5][6]

Sakharov's parents and paternal grandmother, Maria Petrovna, largely shaped his personality; his mother and grandmother were members of the Russian Orthodox Church, although his father was a non-believer. When Andrei was about thirteen, he realized that he did not believe in God. However, despite being an atheist,[7] he did believe in a "guiding principle" that transcends the physical laws.[8]

After schooling, Sakharov studied physics at the Moscow State University in 1938 and, following evacuation in 1941 during the Eastern Front with Germany, he graduated in Aşgabat in Turkmenistan.[9] In 1943, he married Klavdia Alekseyevna Vikhireva, with whom he raised two daughters and a son. Klavdia would later die in 1969. In 1945, he joined the Theoretical Department of Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences under Igor Tamm in Moscow. In 1947, Sakharov was successful in defending this thesis for the Doctor of Sciences (lit. Doktor Nauk), which covered the topic of nuclear transmutation.[10]

Soviet program of nuclear weapons[edit]

After World War II, he researched cosmic rays. In mid-1948 he participated in the Soviet atomic bomb project under Igor Kurchatov and Igor Tamm. Sakharov's study group at FIAN in 1948 came up with a second concept in August–September 1948.[11] Adding a shell of natural, unenriched uranium around the deuterium would increase the deuterium concentration at the uranium-deuterium boundary and the overall yield of the device, because the natural uranium would capture neutrons and itself fission as part of the thermonuclear reaction. This idea of a layered fission-fusion-fission bomb led Sakharov to call it the sloika, or layered cake.[11] The first Soviet atomic device was tested on August 29, 1949. After moving to Sarov in 1950, Sakharov played a key role in the development of the first megaton-range Soviet hydrogen bomb using a design known as Sakharov's Third Idea in Russia and the Teller–Ulam design in the United States. Before his Third Idea, Sakharov tried a "layer cake" of alternating layers of fission and fusion fuel. The results were disappointing, yielding no more than a typical fission bomb. However the design was seen to be worth pursuing because deuterium is abundant and uranium is scarce, and he had no idea how powerful the US design was. Sakharov realised that in order to cause the explosion of one side of the fuel to symmetrically compress the fusion fuel, a mirror could be used to reflect the radiation. The details had not been officially declassified in Russia when Sakharov was writing his memoirs, but in the Teller–Ulam design, soft X-rays emitted by the fission bomb were focused onto a cylinder of lithium deuteride to compress it symmetrically. This is called radiation implosion. The Teller–Ulam design also had a secondary fission device inside the fusion cylinder to assist with the compression of the fusion fuel and generate neutrons to convert some of the lithium to tritium, producing a mixture of deuterium and tritium.[12][13] Sakharov's idea was first tested as RDS-37 in 1955. A larger variation of the same design which Sakharov worked on was the 50 Mt Tsar Bomba of October 1961, which was the most powerful nuclear device ever detonated.

Sakharov saw "striking parallels" between his fate and those of J. Robert Oppenheimer and Edward Teller in the US. Sakharov believed that in this "tragic confrontation of two outstanding people", both deserved respect, because "each of them was certain he had right on his side and was morally obligated to go to the end in the name of truth." While Sakharov strongly disagreed with Teller over nuclear testing in the atmosphere and the Strategic Defense Initiative, he believed that American academics had been unfair to Teller's resolve to get the H-bomb for the United States since "all steps by the Americans of a temporary or permanent rejection of developing thermonuclear weapons would have been seen either as a clever feint, or as the manifestation of stupidity. In both cases, the reaction would have been the same – avoid the trap and immediately take advantage of the enemy's stupidity."

Sakharov never felt that by creating nuclear weapons he had "known sin", in Oppenheimer's expression. He later wrote:

After more than forty years, we have had no third world war, and the balance of nuclear terror ... may have helped to prevent one. But I am not at all sure of this; back then, in those long-gone years, the question didn't even arise. What most troubles me now is the instability of the balance, the extreme peril of the current situation, the appalling waste of the arms race ... Each of us has a responsibility to think about this in global terms, with tolerance, trust, and candor, free from ideological dogmatism, parochial interests, or national egotism."

— Andrei Sakharov[14]

Support for peaceful use of nuclear technology[edit]

In 1950 he proposed an idea for a controlled nuclear fusion reactor, the tokamak, which is still the basis for the majority of work in the area. Sakharov, in association with Tamm, proposed confining extremely hot ionized plasma by torus shaped magnetic fields for controlling thermonuclear fusion that led to the development of the tokamak device.[15]

Magneto-implosive generators[edit]

In 1951 he invented and tested the first explosively pumped flux compression generators,[16] compressing magnetic fields by explosives. He called these devices MK (for MagnetoKumulative) generators. The radial MK-1 produced a pulsed magnetic field of 25 megagauss (2500 teslas). The resulting helical MK-2 generated 1000 million amperes in 1953.

Sakharov then tested a MK-driven "plasma cannon" where a small aluminum ring was vaporized by huge eddy currents into a stable, self-confined toroidal plasmoid and was accelerated to 100 km/s.[17] Sakharov later suggested replacing the copper coil in MK generators with a large superconductor solenoid to magnetically compress and focus underground nuclear explosions into a shaped charge effect. He theorized this could focus 1023 protons per second on a 1 mm2 surface.

Particle physics and cosmology[edit]

After 1965 Sakharov returned to fundamental science and began working on particle physics and physical cosmology.[18][19][20][21][22]

2D didactic image of Sakharov's model of the universe with reversal of the arrow of time

He tried to explain the baryon asymmetry of the universe; in that regard, he was the first to give a theoretical motivation for proton decay. Proton decay was suggested by Wigner in 1949 and 1952.[23]

Proton decay experiments had been performed since 1954 already.[24] Sakharov was the first to consider CPT-symmetric events occurring before the Big Bang:

We can visualize that neutral spinless maximons (or photons) are produced at ''t'' < 0 from contracting matter having an excess of antiquarks, that they pass "one through the other" at the instant ''t'' = 0 when the density is infinite, and decay with an excess of quarks when ''t'' > 0, realizing total CPT symmetry of the universe. All the phenomena at t < 0 are assumed in this hypothesis to be CPT reflections of the phenomena at t > 0.[25]

His legacy in this domain are the famous conditions named after him:[25] Baryon number violation, C-symmetry and CP-symmetry violation, and interactions out of thermal equilibrium.

Sakharov was also interested in explaining why the curvature of the universe is so small. This lead him to consider cyclic models, where the universe oscillates between contraction and expansion phases.[26][27] In those models, after a certain number of cycles the curvature naturally becomes infinite even if it had not started this way: Sakharov considered three starting points, a flat universe with a slightly negative cosmological constant, a universe with a positive curvature and a zero cosmological constant, and a universe with a negative curvature and a slightly negative cosmological constant. Those last two models feature what Sakharov calls a reversal of the time arrow, which can be summarized as follows: He considers times t > 0 after the initial Big Bang singularity at t = 0 (which he calls "Friedman singularity" and denotes Φ) as well as times t < 0 before that singularity. He then assumes that entropy increases when time increases for t > 0 as well as when time decreases for t < 0, which constitutes his reversal of time. Then he considers the case when the universe at t < 0 is the image of the universe at t > 0 under CPT symmetry but also the case when it is not so: the universe has a non-zero CPT charge at t = 0 in this case. Sakharov considers a variant of this model where the reversal of the time arrow occurs at a point of maximum entropy instead of happening at the singularity. In those models there is no dynamic interaction between the universe at t < 0 and t > 0.

In his first model the two universes did not interact, except via local matter accumulation whose density and pressure become high enough to connect the two sheets through a bridge without spacetime between them, but with a continuity of geodesics beyond the Schwarzschild radius with no singularity[citation needed], allowing an exchange of matter between the two conjugated sheets, based on an idea after Igor Dmitriyevich Novikov.[28] Novikov called such singularities a collapse and an anticollapse, which are an alternative to the couple black hole and white hole in the wormhole model. Sakharov also proposed the idea of induced gravity as an alternative theory of quantum gravity.[29]

Turn to activism[edit]

Sakharov and Bonner in 1989

Since the late 1950s Sakharov had become concerned about the moral and political implications of his work. Politically active during the 1960s, Sakharov was against nuclear proliferation. Pushing for the end of atmospheric tests, he played a role in the 1963 Partial Test Ban Treaty, signed in Moscow.[30]

Sakharov was also involved in an event with political consequences in 1964, when the Soviet Academy of Sciences nominated for full membership Nikolai Nuzhdin, a follower of Trofim Lysenko (initiator of the Stalin-supported anti-genetics campaign Lysenkoism). Contrary to normal practice, Sakharov, a member of the academy, publicly spoke out against full membership for Nuzhdin and held him responsible for "the defamation, firing, arrest, even death, of many genuine scientists."[31]: 109  In the end, Nuzhdin was not elected, but the episode prompted Nikita Khrushchev to order the KGB to gather compromising material on Sakharov.[31]: 109 

The major turn in Sakharov's political evolution came in 1967, when anti-ballistic missile defense became a key issue in US–Soviet relations. In a secret detailed letter to the Soviet leadership of July 21, 1967, Sakharov explained the need to "take the Americans at their word" and accept their proposal for a "bilateral rejection by the USA and the Soviet Union of the development of antiballistic missile defense" because an arms race in the new technology would otherwise increase the likelihood of nuclear war. He also asked permission to publish his manuscript, which accompanied the letter, in a newspaper to explain the dangers posed by that kind of defense. The government ignored his letter and refused to let him initiate a public discussion of ABMs in the Soviet press.[32][33]

Since 1967, after the Six Day War and the beginning of the Arab-Israeli conflict, he actively supported Israel, as he reported more than once in the press, and also maintained friendly relations with refuseniks who later made aliyah.

In May 1968, Sakharov completed an essay, "Reflections on Progress, Peaceful Coexistence, and Intellectual Freedom". He described the anti-ballistic missile defense as a major threat of world nuclear war. After the essay was circulated in samizdat and then published outside the Soviet Union,[34] Sakharov was banned from conducting any military-related research and returned to FIAN to study fundamental theoretical physics.

For 12 years, until his exile to Gorky (Nizhny Novgorod) in January 1980, Sakharov assumed the role of a widely recognized and open dissident in Moscow.[35]: 21  He stood vigil outside closed courtrooms, wrote appeals on behalf of more than 200 individual prisoners, and continued to write essays about the need for democratization.[35]: 21 

In 1970, Sakharov was among the three founding members of the Committee on Human Rights in the USSR, along with Valery Chalidze and Andrei Tverdokhlebov.[35]: 21  The Committee wrote appeals, collected signatures for petitions and succeeded in affiliating with several international human rights organizations. Its work was the subject of many KGB reports and brought Sakharov under increasing pressure from the government.[15]

Sakharov married a fellow human rights activist, Yelena Bonner, in 1972.[36]

By 1973, Sakharov was meeting regularly with Western correspondents and holding press conferences in his apartment.[35]: 21  He appealed to the US Congress to approve the 1974 Jackson-Vanik Amendment to a trade bill, which coupled trade tariffs to the Kremlin's willingness to allow freer emigration.[35]: 24 

Attacked by Soviet establishment from 1972[edit]

In 1972, Sakharov became the target of sustained pressure from his fellow scientists in the Soviet Academy of Sciences and the Soviet press. The writer Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn came to his defence.[37]

In 1973 and 1974, the Soviet media campaign continued, targeting both Sakharov and Solzhenitsyn for their pro-Western, anti-socialist positions.

Sakharov later described that it took "years" for him to "understand how much substitution, deceit, and lack of correspondence with reality there was" in the Soviet ideals. "At first I thought, despite everything that I saw with my own eyes, that the Soviet State was a breakthrough into the future, a kind of prototype for all countries". Then he came, in his words, to "the theory of symmetry: all governments and regimes to a first approximation are bad, all peoples are oppressed, and all are threatened by common dangers.":[14]

...symmetry between a cancer cell and a normal one. Yet our state is similar to a cancer cell – with its messianism and expansionism, its totalitarian suppression of dissent, the authoritarian structure of power, with a total absence of public control in the most important decisions in domestic and foreign policy, a closed society that does not inform its citizens of anything substantial, closed to the outside world, without freedom of travel or the exchange of information.[14]

Sakharov's ideas on social development led him to put forward the principle of human rights as a new basis of all politics. In his works, he declared that "the principle 'what is not prohibited is allowed' should be understood literally", and defied what he saw as unwritten ideological rules imposed by the Communist Party on the society in spite of a democratic Soviet Constitution (1936):

I am no volunteer priest of the idea, but simply a man with an unusual fate. I am against all kinds of self-immolation (for myself and for others, including the people closest to me).[14]

In a letter written from exile, he cheered up a fellow physicist and free market advocate with the words: "Fortunately, the future is unpredictable and also – because of quantum effects – uncertain." For Sakharov, the indeterminacy of the future supported his belief that he could and should take personal responsibility for it.

Nobel Peace Prize (1975)[edit]

In 1973, Sakharov was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize, and in 1974, he was awarded the Prix mondial Cino Del Duca.

Sakharov was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1975. The Norwegian Nobel Committee called him "a spokesman for the conscience of mankind".[2] In the words of the Nobel Committee's citation: "In a convincing manner Sakharov has emphasised that Man's inviolable rights provide the only safe foundation for genuine and enduring international cooperation."[14]

Sakharov was not allowed to leave the Soviet Union to collect the prize. His wife, Yelena Bonner, read his speech at the ceremony in Oslo, Norway.[38][39] On the day the prize was awarded, Sakharov was in Vilnius, where the human rights activist Sergei Kovalev was being tried.[40] In his Nobel lecture, "Peace, Progress, Human Rights", Sakharov called for an end to the arms race, greater respect for the environment, international cooperation, and universal respect for human rights. He included a list of prisoners of conscience and political prisoners in the Soviet Union and stated that he shared the prize with them.[39]

By 1976, the head of the KGB, Yuri Andropov, was prepared to call Sakharov "Domestic Enemy Number One" before a group of KGB officers.[35]: 24 

Internal exile (1980–1986)[edit]

The apartment building in Gagarina Avenue 214, Scherbinki district of Nizhny Novgorod where Sakharov lived in exile from 1980 to 1986. His apartment is now a museum.

Sakharov was arrested on 22 January 1980, following his public protests against the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan in 1979, and was sent to the city of Gorky, now Nizhny Novgorod, a city that was off limits to foreigners.[41]

Between 1980 and 1986, Sakharov was kept under Soviet police surveillance. In his memoirs, he mentioned that their apartment in Gorky was repeatedly subjected to searches and heists. Sakharov was named the 1980 Humanist of the Year by the American Humanist Association.[42]

In May 1984, Sakharov's wife, Yelena Bonner, was detained, and Sakharov began a hunger strike, demanding permission for his wife to travel to the United States for heart surgery. He was forcibly hospitalized and force-fed. He was held in isolation for four months. In August 1984, Bonner was sentenced by a court to five years of exile in Gorky.

In April 1985, Sakharov started a new hunger strike for his wife to travel abroad for medical treatment. He again was taken to a hospital and force-fed. In August, the Politburo discussed what to do about Sakharov.[43] He remained in the hospital until October 1985, when his wife was allowed to travel to the United States. She had heart surgery in the United States and returned to Gorky in June 1986.

In December 1985, the European Parliament established the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, to be given annually for outstanding contributions to human rights.[44]

On 19 December 1986, Mikhail Gorbachev, who had initiated the policies of perestroika and glasnost, called Sakharov to tell him that he and his wife could return to Moscow.[45]

Political leader[edit]

Sakharov with U.S. President Ronald Reagan in 1988

In 1988, Sakharov was given the International Humanist Award by the International Humanist and Ethical Union.[46] He helped to initiate the first independent legal political organizations and became prominent in the Soviet Union's growing political opposition. In March 1989, Sakharov was elected to the new parliament, the All-Union Congress of People's Deputies and co-led the democratic opposition, the Inter-Regional Deputies Group. In November the head of the KGB reported to Gorbachev on Sakharov's encouragement and support for the coal miners' strike in Vorkuta.[47]

In December 1988, Sakharov visited Armenia and Azerbaijan on a fact-finding mission.[48] He concluded, "For Azerbaijan the issue of Karabakh is a matter of ambition, for the Armenians of Karabakh, it is a matter of life and death".[49]


Sakharov's grave, January 1990

Soon after 9 p.m. on 14 December 1989, Sakharov went to his study to take a nap before preparing an important speech he was to deliver the next day in the Congress. His wife went to wake him at 11pm as he had requested but she found Sakharov dead on the floor. According to the notes of Yakov Rapoport, a senior pathologist present at the autopsy, it is most likely that Sakharov died of an arrhythmia consequent to dilated cardiomyopathy at the age of 68.[50] He was interred in the Vostryakovskoye Cemetery in Moscow.


Memorial prizes[edit]

The Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought was established in 1988 by the European Parliament in his honour, and is the highest tribute to human rights endeavours awarded by the European Union. It is awarded annually by the parliament to "those who carry the spirit of Soviet dissident Andrei Sakharov"; to "Laureates who, like Sakharov, dedicate their lives to peaceful struggle for human rights."[51]

An Andrei Sakharov prize has also been awarded by the American Physical Society every second year since 2006 "to recognize outstanding leadership and/or achievements of scientists in upholding human rights".

The Andrei Sakharov Prize for Writer's Civic Courage was established in October 1990.[52]

In 2004, with the approval of Yelena Bonner, an annual Sakharov Prize for journalism was established for reporters and commentators in Russia. Funded by former Soviet dissident Pyotr Vins,[53] now a businessman in the US, the prize is administered by the Glasnost Defence Foundation in Moscow. The prize "for journalism as an act of conscience" has been won over the years by famous journalists such as Anna Politkovskaya and young reporters and editors working far from Russia's media capital, Moscow. The 2015 winner was Yelena Kostyuchenko.[54]

Andrei Sakharov Archives and Human Rights Center[edit]

The Andrei Sakharov Archives Archived May 25, 2011, at the Wayback Machine and Human Rights Center, established at Brandeis University in 1993, are now housed at Harvard University.[55] The documents from that archive were published by the Yale University Press in 2005.[56] These documents are available online.[57] Most of documents of the archive are letters from the head of the KGB to the Central Committee about activities of Soviet dissidents and recommendations about the interpretation in newspapers. The letters cover the period from 1968 to 1991 (Brezhnev stagnation). The documents characterize not only Sakharov's activity, but that of other dissidents, as well as that of highest-position apparatchiks and the KGB. No Russian equivalent of the KGB archive is available.

Legacy and remembrance[edit]


A statue of Andrei Sakharov in Yerevan, Armenia
"Thank you Andrei Sakharov" mural on the Berlin Wall
Andrei Sakharov on Soviet Nobel Peace Prize winners, the USSR stamp issued on 14 May 1991
  • In Moscow, there is Academician Sakharov Avenue and Sakharov Center.
  • During the 1980s, the block of 16th Street NW between L and M streets, in front of the Soviet embassy in Washington, D.C. (which later became the Russian ambassador's residence) was renamed "Andrei Sakharov Plaza" as a form of protest against his 1980 arrest and detention.[58]
  • In Yerevan, the capital of Armenia, Sakharov Square, located in the heart of the city, is named after him.
  • The Sakharov Gardens (est. 1990) are located at the entrance to Jerusalem, Israel, off the Jerusalem–Tel Aviv Highway.[59] There is also a street named after him in Haifa.
  • In Nizhny Novgorod, there is a Sakharov Museum in the apartment on the first floor of the 12-storeyed house where the Sakharov family lived for seven years; in 2014 his monument was erected near the house.
  • In Saint Petersburg, his monument stands in Sakharov Square, and there is a Sakharov Park.
  • In 1979, an asteroid, 1979 Sakharov, was named after him.
  • A public square in Vilnius in front of the Press House is named after Sakharov. The square was named on 16 March 1991, as the Press House was still occupied by the Soviet Army.
  • Andreja Saharova iela in the district of Pļavnieki in Riga, Latvia, is named after Sakharov.
  • Andreij-Sacharow-Platz in downtown Nuremberg is named in honour of Sakharov.
  • In Belarus, International Sakharov Environmental University was named after him.
  • Intersection of Ventura Blvd and Laurel Canyon Blvd in Studio City, Los Angeles, is named Andrei Sakharov Square.[60]
  • In Arnhem, the bridge over the Nederrijn is called the Andrej Sacharovbrug.
  • The Andrej Sacharovweg is a street in Assen, Netherlands. There are also streets named in his honour in other places in the Netherlands such as Amsterdam, Amstelveen, The Hague, Hellevoetsluis, Leiden, Purmerend, Rotterdam, Utrecht
  • A street in Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • Quai Andreï Sakharov in Tournai, Belgium, is named in honour of Sakharov.
  • In Poland, streets named in his honour in Warsaw, Łódź and Kraków.
  • Andreï Sakharov Boulevard in the district of Mladost in Sofia, Bulgaria, is named after him.
  • In New York, a street sign at the southwest corner of Third Avenue and 67th Street reads Sakharov-Bonner Corner, in honor of Sakharov and his wife, Yelena Bonner. The corner is just down the block from the Soviet Mission to the United Nations (which later became the Russian mission) and was the scene of repeated anti-Soviet demonstrations.[61]
  • In Chisinau, the capital of Moldova, there is Academician Andrei Sakharov street.


Honours and awards[edit]

In 1980, Sakharov was stripped of all Soviet awards for "anti-Soviet activities".[65] Later, during glasnost, he declined the return of his awards and, consequently, Mikhail Gorbachev did not sign the necessary decree.[66]



  • Sakharov, Andrei (1974). Sakharov speaks. Collins: Harvill Press. ISBN 978-0-00-262755-9.
  • Sakharov, Andrei (1975). My country and the world. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-394-40226-0.
  • Sakharov, Andrei (1978). Alarm and hope. The world-renowned Nobel laureate and political dissident speaks out on human rights, disarmament, and détente. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-394-50369-1.
  • Sakharov, Andrei (1982). Collected scientific works. Marcel Dekker Inc. ISBN 978-0-8247-1714-8.
  • Sakharov, Andrei (1990). Memoirs. Knopf. ISBN 978-0394537405.
  • Sakharov, Andrei (1991). Moscow and beyond: 1986 to 1989. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-394-58797-4.
  • Сахаров, Андрей (1996). Воспоминания. В 2 томах [Memoirs. In 2 volumes] (in Russian). Vol. 1. Moscow: Права человека. ISBN 978-5-7712-0011-8.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: ignored ISBN errors (link)
  • Сахаров, Андрей (1996). Воспоминания. В 2 томах [Memoirs. In 2 volumes] (in Russian). Vol. 2. Moscow: Права человека. ISBN 978-5-7712-0026-2.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: ignored ISBN errors (link)

Articles and interviews[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Sakharov Human Rights Prize 25th anniversary marked in US". Voice of America. January 15, 2014.
  2. ^ a b "Andrei Sakharov: Soviet Physics, Nuclear Weapons and Human Rights". American Institute of Physics. Archived from the original on December 31, 2015.
  3. ^ "Andrei Sakharov - Facts". Nobel Prize. Retrieved November 24, 2020.
  4. ^ Sidney David Drell, Sergeǐ Petrovich Kapitsa, Sakharov Remembered: a tribute by friends and colleagues (1991), p. 4
  5. ^ Bonner, Yelena. Об А.Д. Сахарове (in Russian). Archived from the original on November 14, 2010. Retrieved November 2, 2009.
  6. ^ Греки в Красноярском крае (Материалы из книги И. Джухи "Греческая операция НКВД") (in Russian). Archived from the original on April 8, 2010. Retrieved November 2, 2009.
  7. ^ Gennady Gorelik; Antonina W. Bouis (2005). The World of Andrei Sakharov: A Russian Physicist's Path to Freedom. Oxford University Press. p. 356. ISBN 9780195156201. Apparently Sakharov did not need to delve any deeper into it for a long time, remaining a totally non-militant atheist with an open heart.
  8. ^ Sidney D. Drell, George P. Shultz (October 1, 2015). Andrei Sakharov: The Conscience of Humanity. Hoover Press. ISBN 9780817918965. I am unable to imagine the universe and human life without some guiding principle, without a source of spiritual 'warmth' that is nonmaterial and not bound by physical laws.
  9. ^ "Nobel Prize Laureates from MSU". Moscow State University. Retrieved October 8, 2017.
  10. ^ Mastin, Luke (2009). "Andrei Sakharov - Important Scientists". The Physics of the Universe. Retrieved October 8, 2017.
  11. ^ a b Zaloga, Steve (17 February 2002). The Kremlin's Nuclear Sword: The Rise and Fall of Russia's Strategic Nuclear Forces 1945–2000. Smithsonian Books. ISBN 1588340074.
  12. ^ Sakharov, Andrei (1992). Memoirs. Vintage. ISBN 978-0679735953.
  13. ^ Gorelik, Gennady; Bouis, Antonina (2005). The world of Andrei Sakharov: a Russian physicist's path to freedom. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195156201.
  14. ^ a b c d e Gorelik, Gennady (2008). "Andrei Sakharov". In Koertge, Noretta (ed.). New dictionary of scientific biography. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons/Thomson Gale.
  15. ^ a b "Andrei Sakharov: Soviet Physics, Nuclear Weapons and Human Rights". Archived from the original on August 28, 2014. Retrieved October 10, 2010.
  16. ^ Sakharov, A. D. (January 1966). "Magnetoimplosive Generators" Взрывомагнитные генераторы. Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk (in Russian). 88 (4): 725–734. doi:10.3367/ufnr.0088.196604e.0725. Translated as: Sakharov, A. D. (1966). "Magnetoimplosive generators". Soviet Physics Uspekhi. 9 (2): 294–299. Bibcode:1966SvPhU...9..294S. doi:10.1070/PU1966v009n02ABEH002876. Republished as: Sakharov, A. D.; et al. (1991). "Magnetoimplosive generators" Взрывомагнитные генераторы. Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk (in Russian). 161 (5): 51–60. doi:10.3367/UFNr.0161.199105g.0051. Translated as: Sakharov, A. D.; et al. (1991). "Magnetoimplosive generators". Soviet Physics Uspekhi. 34 (5): 387–391. Bibcode:1991SvPhU..34..385S. doi:10.1070/PU1991v034n05ABEH002495.
  17. ^ Sakharov, A. D. (December 7, 1982). Collected Scientific Works. Marcel Dekker. ISBN 978-0824717148.
  18. ^ Sakharov, A. D. (July 1965). Начальная стадия расширения Вселенной и возникновение неоднородности распределения вещества. Pi'sma ZhÉTF (in Russian). 49 (1): 345–358. Translated as: Sakharov, A. D. (January 1966). "The Initial Stage of an Expanding Universe and the Appearance of a Nonuniform Distribution of Matter" (PDF). JETP. 22 (1): 241–249. Bibcode:1966JETP...22..241S. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022.
  19. ^ Sakharov, A. D. (January 1967). Кварк–мюонные токи и нарушение СР–инвариантности. Pi'sma ZhÉTF (in Russian). 5 (1): 36–39. Translated as: Sakharov, A. D. (January 1967). "Quark-Muonic Currents and Violation of CP Invariance" (PDF). JETP Letters. 5 (1): 27–30. Bibcode:1967JETPL...5...27S. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022.
  20. ^ Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 177, 70 (1967) [trans. Sov. Phys.-Dokl. 12, 1040 (1968)]
  21. ^ Sakharov, A. D. (1969). Антикварки во Вселенной [Antiquarks in the Universe]. Problems in Theoretical Physics (in Russian): 35–44. Dedicated to the 30th anniversary of N. N. Bogolyubov.
  22. ^ Paper at seminar, Phys. Inst. Acad. Sci., June 1970
  23. ^ E. P. Wigner, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 93, 521 (1949); Proc. Natl.Ac'ad. Sci. (U. S.) 38, 449 (1952)
  24. ^ F. Reines, C.L. Cowan, M. Goldhaber, Phys.Rev. 96 (1954) 1157.
  25. ^ a b Sakharov, A. D. (January 1967). Нарушение СР–инвариантности, С–асимметрия и барионная асимметрия Вселенной. Pi'sma ZhÉTF (in Russian). 5 (1): 32–35. Translated as: Sakharov, A. D. (January 1967). "Violation of CP invariance, C asymmetry, and baryon asymmetry of the universe" (PDF). JETP Letters. 5 (1): 24–26. Bibcode:1967JETPL...5...24S. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Republished as Sakharov, A. D. (May 1991). "Violation of CP invariance, C asymmetry, and baryon asymmetry of the universe" (PDF). Soviet Physics Uspekhi. 34 (5): 392–393. Bibcode:1991SvPhU..34..392S. doi:10.1070/PU1991v034n05ABEH002497. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022.
  26. ^ Sakharov, A. D. (October 1982). Многолистные модели Вселенной. Pi'sma ZhÉTF (in Russian). 82 (3): 1233–1240. Translated as: Sakharov, A. D. (October 1982). "Many-sheeted models of the universe (Multisheet models of the universe)" (PDF). JETP. 56 (4): 705–709. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022.
  27. ^ Sakharov, A. D. (September 1980). Космологические модели Вселенной с поворотом стрелы времени. Pi'sma ZhÉTF (in Russian). 79 (3): 689–693.Translated as: Sakharov, A. D. (September 1980). "Cosmological models of the Universe with reversal of time's arrow" (PDF). JETP Letters. 52 (3): 349–351. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022.
  28. ^ Novikov, I. D. (March 1966). "The Disturbances of the Metric when a Collapsing Sphere Passes below the Schwarzschild Sphere" (PDF). JETP Letters. 3 (5): 142–144. Bibcode:1966JETPL...3..142N. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022.
  29. ^ Sakharov, A. D. (1967). Вакуумные квантовые флуктуации в искривленном пространстве и теория гравитации. Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences (in Russian). 177 (1): 70–71. Translated as: Sakharov, A. D. (1991). "Vacuum Quantum Fluctuations in Curved Space and the theory of gravitation" (PDF). Soviet Physics Uspekhi. 34 (5): 394. Bibcode:1991SvPhU..34..394S. doi:10.1070/PU1991v034n05ABEH002498. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022.
  30. ^ Anderson, Raymond H. (December 15, 1989). "Andrei Sakharov, 68, Nuclear Inventor and Mainspring of the Soviet Conscience (Published 1989)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 14, 2021.
  31. ^ a b Crump, Thomas (2013). Brezhnev and the Decline of the Soviet Union. Routledge Studies in the History of Russia and Eastern Europe. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-66922-6.
  32. ^ Gennady Gorelik. The Metamorphosis of Andrei Sakharov. Scientific American, 1999, March.
  33. ^ Web exhibit "Andrei SAKHAROV: Soviet Physics, Nuclear Weapons, and Human Rights" at American Institute of Physics [1] Archived December 29, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ Initially on July 6, 1968, in the Dutch newspaper Het Parool through the intermediary of the Dutch academic and writer Karel van het Reve, followed by The New York Times: "Outspoken Soviet Scientist; Andrei Dmitriyevich Sakharov". The New York Times. July 22, 1968.
  35. ^ a b c d e f Rubenstein, Joshua; Gribanov, Alexander (2005). The KGB File of Andrei Sakharov. Joshua Rubenstein, Alexander Gribanov (eds.), Ella Shmulevich, Efrem Yankelevich, Alla Zeide (trans.). New Haven, CN. ISBN 978-0-300-12937-3.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  36. ^
  37. ^ "30.12 Materials about Sakharov". A Chronicle of Current Events. January 16, 2016.
  38. ^ Y.B. Sakharov: Acceptance Speech, Nobel Peace Prize, Oslo, Norway, December 10, 1975.
  39. ^ a b Y.B. Sakharov: Peace, Progress, Human Rights, Sakharov's Nobel Lecture, Nobel Peace Prize, Oslo, Norway, December 11, 1975.
  40. ^ Gorelik, Gennady (2005). The World of Andrei Sakharov: A Russian Physicist's Path to Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-534374-8.
  41. ^ "From Exile - Sakharov Web Exhibit". Archived from the original on October 25, 2020. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
  42. ^ "Humanist of the Year". Archived from the original on January 14, 2013. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
  43. ^ "The Bukovsky Archives, 29 August 1985". Archived from the original on October 13, 2016. Retrieved July 6, 2016.
  44. ^ "AIP_Sakharov_Photo_Chronology". Archived from the original on March 3, 2021. Retrieved August 10, 2005.
  45. ^ Michael MccGwire (1991). Perestroïka and Soviet national security. Brookings Institution Press. p. 275. ISBN 978-0-8157-5553-1.
  46. ^ "IHEU Awards | IHEU". IHEU. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
  47. ^ "The Bukovsky Archives, 14 November 1989". Archived from the original on October 13, 2016. Retrieved July 6, 2016.
  48. ^ Whitney, Craig R.; Times, Special To the New York (January 10, 1989). "SAKHAROV TOOK UP ENCLAVE'S STATUS". The New York Times. Retrieved December 16, 2020.
  49. ^ "House of Commons - Foreign Affairs - Appendices to the Minutes of Evidence - Sixth Report".
  50. ^ Coleman, Fred (1997). The Decline and Fall of the Soviet Empire: Forty Years That Shook the World, from Stalin to Yeltsin. New York: St. Martin's. p. 116.
  51. ^ "Sakharov Prize Network". European Parliament. Retrieved December 10, 2013.
  52. ^ "For Writer's Civic Courage" Archived May 26, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Literaturnaya Gazeta, October 31, 1990
  53. ^ "No 49 : 14 May 1978". A Chronicle of Current Events. October 7, 2013.
  54. ^ "Glasnost defence foundation digest No. 734".
  55. ^ Harvard University. KGB file of Sakharov Archived May 16, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  56. ^ The KGB File of Andrei Sakharov. (edited by Joshua Rubenstein and Alexander Gribanov), New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005; ISBN 978-0-300-10681-7
  57. ^ The KGB File of Andrei Sakharov Archived May 21, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, online version with original texts and the English translations in English and in Russian (text version in Windows-1251 character encoding and the pictures of the original pages).
  58. ^ Washington's Sakharov Plaza: A Message to Russia, Toledo Blade, 27 August 1984. Retrieved May 2013
  59. ^ (in Russian). Photo exhibition "Sakharov Gardens" Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine (
  60. ^ Aaron Curtiss (November 22, 1991). "Sakharov Junction". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles. Archived from the original on November 2, 2012. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
  61. ^ Anderson, Susan; Bird, David (August 10, 1984). "New York day by day; human rights reminder posted near Soviet mission". The New York Times.
  62. ^ "Alexander Gradsky official website" (in Russian). Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  63. ^ "Andrei Dmitriyevich Sakharov". American Academy of Arts & Sciences. Retrieved July 15, 2022.
  64. ^ "Andrei Sakharov". Retrieved July 15, 2022.
  65. ^ "Andrei Sakharov, 68, Soviet 'Conscience,' Dies". The New York Times. Retrieved March 24, 2018.
  66. ^ Gennady Gorelik, The World Of Andrei Sakharov, (Oxford: Oxford U. Press) 2005, pp. xv, 351-355
  67. ^ "APS Member History". Retrieved July 15, 2022.

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External links[edit]